The structured cabling is a technologic that aims to organize and standardize the physical and logical networks between computers.
One of the most known standards structured cabling is standard Ethernet, commonly known as "blue cable." This pattern is ideal for connections between computers at speeds up to 1000 Mb/s and distances up to 100m.
For longer distances, repeater can be placed or working with modern fiber optics.
Structured cabling back to the network technologies of the 1980s, a period in telecommunications and computer companies, such as AT&T, IBM and Dec create their own proprietary cabling systems.
In the 1990s, the structured cabling progresses greatly through the introduction of the twisted pair cable. In this sense, the creation of EIA / TIA and ISO standards help standardize cables, connectors and procedures.
A Structured Cabling System EIA/TIA-568-B (ANSI/TIA/EIA-568-B1 and see the Brazilian equivalent standard: NBR 14565) consists of six subsystems:
Entry Edíficio - EF (Entrance Facilities)
Equipment Room - ER (Equipment Room)
Primary Network or Cabling Vertical - BC (Backbone Cabling)
Telecommunications room - TR (Telecommunications Room)
Secondary network or Horizontal Cabling - HC (Horizontal Cabling)
Desktop - WA (Work Area)
There are on the market currently use four types of categories:
CAT5: work at a transfer rate of 100 Mbit/s to 1000 Mbit/s
CAT5e: they are replacing the CAT5 cables and support distances of 100m in order.
CAT6: support higher transfer rates (10 Gbit/s), but have not yet been fully adopted by limited distance (55m) and little gain because of hardware
CAT6a: adaptation of CAT6 to reach distances up to 100m.
There are basically two topologies widely held in relation to structured cabling:
Topology Point-to-point: used to connect a computer to another.
Mesh topology: computers and other devices connect to a distributor and that can connect to other distributors